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Top 10 Essential Minerals and Vitamins for Chickens

Top 10 Essential Minerals and Vitamins for Chickens: A Guide to Optimal Health and Productivity

Raising healthy, productive chickens requires more than just feed and water. Essential vitamins and minerals play a critical role in ensuring that your flock remains healthy, grows efficiently, and produces plenty of fresh eggs. Without the correct vitamins and minerals, chickens will suffer from deficiencies, lay fewer eggs and be more susceptible to parasite and diseases.

In this blog post, we will delve into the top 10 essential minerals and vitamins for chickens, discussing their importance, sources, and the benefits of using a vitamin mineral supplement for chickens.

Understanding the Importance of Chicken Vitamins and Minerals

Chickens, like all animals, need a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals to thrive. These nutrients are crucial for various bodily functions, including bone development, immune response and overall growth. For laying hens, even a tiny deficiency will decrease egg production, so a vitamin and mineral supplement is recommended.

Here’s a closer look at the top 10 key vitamins and minerals your chickens need.

    Essential Vitamins for Chickens

  1. Vitamin A

    Importance: Vital for vision, immune function, and reproduction. Vitamin A is crucial for maintaining the health of mucous membranes, which are essential for protecting the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts. This vitamin also supports proper embryonic development in eggs, contributing to higher hatchability rates.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Poor growth, reproductive issues, and weakened immunity.

  2. Vitamin D3

    Importance: Essential for calcium absorption, bone formation, and eggshell quality. Vitamin D3 helps chickens effectively utilize calcium and phosphorus, which are critical for strong bones and robust eggshells. Without adequate Vitamin D3, chickens can suffer from thin-shelled eggs and skeletal deformities.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Rickets, weak bones, and poor eggshell quality.

  3. Vitamin E

    Importance: Acts as an antioxidant, supporting muscle health and immune function. Vitamin E protects cellular membranes from oxidative damage and is important for reproductive health. In layers, Vitamin E ensures the integrity of the egg yolk membrane, contributing to better egg quality.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Muscular dystrophy and poor reproductive performance.

  4. Vitamin K

    Importance: Necessary for blood clotting and bone metabolism. Vitamin K plays a role in synthesizing proteins required for blood coagulation, preventing excessive bleeding. It also assists in calcium binding in bones, indirectly supporting eggshell formation.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Increased bleeding and poor bone health.

  5. B Vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12)

    Importance: Support energy metabolism, nervous system function, and red blood cell formation. B vitamins are crucial for converting feed into usable energy, which is vital for growth, egg production, and overall vitality. Vitamin B12 is particularly important for red blood cell formation and nerve health, ensuring chickens maintain high levels of productivity.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Poor growth, anemia, and nervous disorders.

  6. Essential Minerals for Chickens

  7. Calcium

    Importance: Crucial for bone strength and eggshell formation. Calcium is the most important mineral for laying hens. It is required in large quantities to produce strong, hard eggshells. Insufficient calcium can lead to thin-shelled or shell-less eggs, reducing hatchability and egg quality.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Weak bones, poor eggshell quality, and decreased egg production.

  8. Phosphorus

    Importance: Works in tandem with calcium for bone development and energy metabolism. Phosphorus is essential for the formation of bones and teeth, and it plays a critical role in the energy transfer within cells. Adequate phosphorus is necessary for egg production and influences calcium absorption for egg shell formation. This is a particularly important mineral to supplement because Australian soils are naturally low in phosphorus and because the phosphorus available in plant form is difficult for chickens to absorb.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Weak bones and poor growth.

  9. Magnesium

    Importance: Essential for enzyme function and energy production. Magnesium supports numerous enzymatic reactions in the body, including those involved in energy metabolism and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. It also plays a role in muscle function, which is important for laying hens.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Muscle weakness and poor growth.

  10. Sodium

    Importance: Necessary for fluid balance and nerve function. Sodium is a key component in maintaining proper fluid balance within the body and ensuring the functionality of nerves and muscles. Adequate sodium levels help prevent issues such as reduced growth rates and poor egg production.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Reduced growth and poor egg production.

  11. Iron

    Importance: Key for hemoglobin formation and oxygen transport. Iron is crucial for the formation of hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in the blood. Adequate iron levels help ensure healthy blood and oxygen delivery to tissues, supporting overall vitality and productivity.

    Deficiency Symptoms: Anemia and lethargy.

Benefits of Vitamin Mineral Supplements for Chickens

Incorporating a high-quality vitamin mineral supplement for chickens can ensure your flock receives all the essential nutrients they need.

A complete feed, in pellet or mash form, alongside free access to shell grit should provide all of the vitamins and minerals that chickens need. But very few backyard chickens eat only a complete feed. If your chickens free range or you add treats, scraps, grains or forage to their diet, then you must also include a vitamin and mineral supplement.

A complete feed is only complete if it makes up 100 % of the diet. Any additions to the diet, even healthy ones, reduce the amount of feed your chickens are consuming, which also means they aren’t getting their full daily quota of essential vitamins and minerals. We often see vitamin and mineral deficiencies in backyard flocks for this reason.

A regular, low-dose vitamin and mineral supplement can stop deficiency and improve chicken health and productivity. Mega Mineral can help:

  • Improve Growth Rates: Ensuring optimal nutrient intake supports better growth and development.
  • Enhance Egg Production: Vitamins and minerals are vital for consistent and high-quality egg production.
  • Boost Immune Function: A well-nourished immune system helps chickens fend off diseases.
  • Prevent Deficiencies: Supplements can fill nutritional gaps, preventing common deficiency-related issues.

Choosing the Right Supplement

Use Mega Mineral Vitamin and Mineral Supplement for Chickens and Poultry to prevent deficiencies in your flock.

Mega Mineral is a completely balanced Vitamin and Mineral Supplement for Chickens containing 17 essential nutrients. It is designed for regularly use alongside complete feeds in order to prevent deficiency. Optimised for bioavailability and chelated to improve nutrition and absorption, adding Mega Mineral to the diet will help maintain optimum health and productivity in your flock.

Mega Mineral for Chickens


Providing your chickens with the right balance of essential vitamins and minerals is crucial for their health and productivity. By understanding the specific needs of your flock and incorporating a high-quality vitamin mineral supplement, you can ensure they live healthy, productive lives.

Investing in proper nutrition will not only enhance the wellbeing of your chickens but also improve egg production and egg quality.

Happy chicken keeping!

Rachael at Dine a Chook Australia

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